Bogardus Social Distance Scale



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What is Bogardus social distance scale?

The Bogardus social distance scale is a psychological testing scale created by Emory S. Bogardus to empirically measure people's willingness to participate in social contacts of varying degrees of closeness with members of diverse social groups, such as racial and ethnic groups. The scale asks people the extent to which they would be accepting of each group (a score of 1.00 for a group is taken to indicate no social distance): * As close relatives by marriage (i.e., as the legal spouse of a close relative) (score 1.00) * As my close personal friends (2.00) * As neighbors on the same street (3.00) * As co-workers in the same occupation (4.00) * As citizens in my country (5.00) * As non-citizen visitors in my country (6.00) * Would exclude from entry into my country (7.00) The Bogardus social distance scale is a cumulative scale (a Guttman scale), because agreement with any item implies agreement with all preceding items. Research by Bogardus first in 1925 and then repeated in 1946, 1956, and 1966 shows that the extent of social distancing in the US is decreasing slightly and fewer distinctions are being made among groups. The study was also replicated in 2005. The results supported the existence of this tendency, showing that the mean level of social distance has been decreasing comparing with the previous studies. For Bogardus, social distance is a function of affective distance between the members of two groups: ‘‘[i]n social distance studies the center of attention is on the feeling reactions of persons toward other persons and toward groups of people.’’ Thus, for him, social distance is essentially a measure of how much or little sympathy the members of a group feel for another group.

Technology Types

actactivityeventmeasurementmental measurementpersonality testprejudice and discriminationscalestandardsystem of measurementtest


Bogardus scaleSocial distance scale


Bogardusova škála sociální distance (cs)Skala dystansu społecznego Bogardusa (pl)Боґардусова шкала соціальної віддаленности (uk)

Tech Info

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 — Date merged: 11/6/2021, 1:32:46 PM
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