Chebotarev'S Density Theorem

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What is Chebotarev's density theorem?

Chebotarev's density theorem in algebraic number theory describes statistically the splitting of primes in a given Galois extension K of the field of rational numbers. Generally speaking, a prime integer will factor into several ideal primes in the ring of algebraic integers of K. There are only finitely many patterns of splitting that may occur. Although the full description of the splitting of every prime p in a general Galois extension is a major unsolved problem, the Chebotarev density theorem says that the frequency of the occurrence of a given pattern, for all primes p less than a large integer N, tends to a certain limit as N goes to infinity. It was proved by Nikolai Chebotaryov in his thesis in 1922, published in . A special case that is easier to state says that if K is an algebraic number field which is a Galois extension of of degree n, then the prime numbers that completely split in K have density 1/n among all primes. More generally, splitting behavior can be specified by assigning to (almost) every prime number an invariant, its Frobenius element, which is a representative of a well-defined conjugacy class in the Galois group Gal(K/Q). Then the theorem says that the asymptotic distribution of these invariants is uniform over the group, so that a conjugacy class with k elements occurs with frequency asymptotic to k/n.

Technology Types

analytic number theorymathematical theorempropositionstatementtheoremtheorems in algebraic number theorytheorems in number theorytheory

Synonyms

Chebotarev density theoremChebotaryov density theoremChebotaryov's density theoremTchebotarev density theorem

Translations

Théorème de densité de Tchebotariov (fr)Tschebotarjowscher Dichtigkeitssatz (de)

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