In topology and related areas of mathematics, a subset A of a topological space X is called dense (in X) if every point x in X either belongs to A or is a limit point of A; that is, the closure of A is constituting the whole set X. Informally, for every point in X, the point is either in A or arbitrarily "close" to a member of A — for instance, the rational numbers are a dense subset of the real numbers because every real number either is a rational number or has a rational number arbitrarily close to it (see Diophantine approximation). Formally, a subset A of a topological space X is dense in X if for any point x in X, any neighborhood of x contains at least one point from A (i.e., A has non-empty intersection with every non-empty open subset of X). Equivalently, A is dense in X if and only if the smallest closed subset of X containing A is X itself. This can also be expressed by saying that the closure of A is X, or that the interior of the complement of A is empty. The density of a topological space X is the least cardinality of a dense subset of X.