The rhetorical presidency is a political communication theory that describes the communication and government style of U.S. presidents in the twentieth century. This theory describes the transition from a presidency that directed rhetoric toward the United States Congress and other government bodies, to one that addresses rhetoric, policy and ideas directly to the public. After political scientists introduced this theory in 1981, Jeffrey K. Tulis authored The Rhetorical Presidency in 1987 establishing itself as the first book on the theory. Tulis established three stages in his book how presidential rhetoric evolved throughout the U.S.' history: the "Old Way", the "Middle Way" and the "New Way". Tulis's book sparked much debate over the historical evolution of presidential rhetoric. Presidential rhetoric integrates both verbal and visual rhetoric practices to gather the support of the public.